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UTJECAJ SUSTAVA PROIZVODNJE I MIKORIZE NA PRINOS PORILUKA

INTENZITET PLODONOŠENJA SORATA KRASTAVACA ZA PRERADU U ZAVISNOSTI OD NAČINA UZGOJA

RESEARCH ON THE CONTROL OF MAJOR TOMATO CROP PATHOGENS AND PESTS

RESEARCH ON LOSSES OF POTATO INTENDED FOR PROCESSING DURING STORAGE

UTJECAJ RAZLIČITO PROIZVEDENIH PRESADNICA NA PRINOS BATATA [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)]

ZLATNA KRUMPIROVA CISTOLIKA NEMATODA (Globodera rostochiensis Woll.) U HRVATSKOJ

POTROŠNJA VODE I MAKROELEMENATA U HIDROPONSKOM UZGOJU RAJČICE

UTJECAJ DUŠIKA I METODE GNOJIDBE NA PRINOS PAPRIKE (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum)

RESEARCH ON SOME SEEDLING PRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF BRASSICA AND FLOWER CULTURES BRED IN FLOATING-TRAY SYSTEM

VEGETABLE SEED HYDRATION TREATMENT - POSSIBILITIES AND RISKS

DOZIRANJE VODE KORISTEĆI KOEFICIJENT NAVODNJAVANJA

ODABIR SORATA KUPUSA ZA KISELJENJE ZA ŽUPANIJSKU ROBNU MARKU "LAKTEC"

EFFECT OF ROW COVERS AND BLACK PLASTIC MULCH ON THE YIELD OF DETERMINATE TOMATOES

MASS LOSSES OF POTATO INTENDED FOR PROCESSING DUE TO PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF EXPLANT TYPE AND VARIETY ON IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION IN LETTUCE

RESEARCH ON THE WATER REGIME OF TOMATOES CULTIVATED IN SOLARIUMS

UTJECAJ VOLUMENA LONČIĆA, MIKORIZE I STAROSTI PRESADNICA NA RAST I RAZVOJ PRESADNICA LUBENICA

DINAMIKA PLODONOŠENJA RAJČICE U HIDROPONSKOM UZGOJU

UTJECAJ VOLUMENA SUPSTRATA NA KOMPONENTE PRINOSA RAJČICE U HIDROPONSKOM UZGOJU

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN RATES ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF CELERY (Apium graveolens var. L. dulce) IN TURKEY

CRVENICE ISTRE KAO SUPSTRAT ZA POVRĆARSKU PROIZVODNJU

UTJECAJ GIBERELINSKE KISELINE (GA3) NA KOMPONENTE PRINOSA ARTIČOKE

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON THE BACTERIA AND VEGETABLE SEED SYMBIOSIS

SEED BACTERIZATION IN RELATION TO THE RATES AND THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION TO VEGETABLE SEED CROPS

FERTILIZATION OF BEAN SEED CULTURES WITH MACRO- AND MICRO- ELEMENTS APPLIED ON THE SOIL AND FOLIARLY

INFLUENCE OF WHITE FLEECE ON THE YIELD FORMATION OF EARLY POTATOES

INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF MALT AND PLANT EXTRACTS ON DIFFERENT PLANT PATHOGENS

ADAPTABILNOST NEKIH NJEMAČKIH I MAĐARSKIH SORATA KRUMPIRA NA RAZLIČITIM LOKACIJAMA U HRVATSKOJ

YELLOW STICKY TRAPS AS A TOOL FOR CONTROLING CABBAGE WHITEFLY (ALEYRODES PROLETELLA L.) ON BRUSSELS SPROUTS

PREZENTIRANI I OBJAVLJENI RADOVI iZ POVRĆARSTVA
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Zbornik sažetaka 39. znanstvenog skupa hrvatskih agronoma 2004. godine - OPATIJA
EFFECTS OF NITROGEN RATES ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF ENDIVE (Cichorium endivia L.) IN TURKEY

Dursun EŞIYOK1, M Kadri BOZOKALFA1, Bülent YAGMUR2, Atnan UGUR1
1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture University of Ege 35100 Bornova/Izmir Turkey (contact e-mail: esiyok@ziraat.ege.edu.tr) 2Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture University of Ege 35100 Bornova/Izmir Turkey

Introduction

Turkey has a suitable ecological condition for vegetable production. Vegetable used for food source because of their high fiber, vitamins and mineral matter contents. Consumption preference determines the type of vegetables. Endive is member of Astaraceae family and used for fresh salads or cooked. Endive is a warm weather vegetable and grown autumn and spring seasons in Turkey climate. In the winter, early high temperatures increase early flowering incidence. In many countries, growers use more fertilizer than needed to increase the yield. This causes some unfavorable soil conditions as salinity or pollution of underground water. Nitrogen is a very important nutrient element especially for green leafy vegetables. Excessive use of nitrogen reduces plant carbohydrate content and destroys carbohydrate-nitrogen balance. The high nitrogen content of soil or plant causes the sour taste of green vegetables. Because of this nitrogen fertilization is very important for leafy green vegetables.

Material and methods

This investigation was carried out in the experimental fields of Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University in 2002-2003 growing seasons. The soil characteristics were given in table 1.

Table 1. Some physical and chemical properties of the experimental soil

Sand %Silt %Clay %TexturepHSoluble salt %Org mat. %CaCo3Total N
60.925.7233.36SCL7.340.0592.063.600.100
P mg kg-!K mg kg-!Ca mg kg-!Mg mg kg-!Na mg kg-!Fe mg kg-!Cu mg kg-!Zn mg kg-!Mn mg kg-!
3.240037505635524.600.9026

In the experiment White curled Endive variety used. The nitrogen doses were 0-60-120-180 kg/ha N. Experimental design was randomized complete blocks with tree replications. Seeds were sown in multicells (45 ml volume) filled with torf and perlite mixture (1:1). Seedling transplanted in soil 60*35 cm distance and 150 kg/ha K2O and 100 kg/ha P2O5 fertilizer were entirely incorporated to soil preplanting under disc-harrow. Usual cultural practices were followed during the growing season. Soil samples are analyzed according to international rules. Plant circumference, plant diameter, plant weight, root weight and length and color was determined measured with tristimulus colorimeter (Model CR-300 Minolta Japan) as CIE L hue and chroma and dry matter content analyzed were determined in randomly chosen 20 plants in each plot. The data were evaluated statistical packet programmed.

Results and discussion

Nitrogen doses did not have statistically significant effects on plant circumference, and plant diameter of endive, but harvest period is affect on circumference and diameter. Delay the harvesting period increase the circumference and diameter(Table 2).

Nitrogen
Doses
Doses(kg/ha)Circumference(cm)Diameter(cm)Plant weight(g)Root weight(g)Root length(cm)LKromaHueDry matter(%)
Control24.036.79226.67.3615.4043.6758.86144.86.40
6024.546.92253.57.9315.6144.4357.96146.6639
120 25.757.10293.77.9714.9943.5657.67147.3631
180 24.727.20297.68.3314.8943.1758.16145.7629
LSDnsns 30.01**nsnsns0.81**1.78**ns
Harvesting
period
1.Harvest23.,316.59247.77.1613.8242.9658.98145.4701
2.Harvest26.217.41288.08.6416.6344.4557.35146.8570
LSD1.74**0.64**36.06*ns2.00**1.32*0.571.26**0.61**
LSD A*Bns0.567*42.27**0.94**nsnsnsns0.39*

Circumference was changed between 24.03 and 25.75 cm and diameter 6.79?7.20 cm. Plant weight of endive was affected by nitrogen. Increasing the application doses of nitrogen linearly increased the plant weight and the highest plant weight 297.6 g obtained from 180 kg/ha nitrogen application (Figure 1). Delaying the harvest also increased the average plant weight. Nitrogen doses and harvest period were significantly affected endive root weight. Root length was not affected by nitrogen doses statistically and changed between 15.61-14.89 cm. Lightness of endive was not affected by nitrogen applications, but delayed harvest increased the lightness values, i.e. leaf color was lighter. Nitrogen doses and harvest period statistically influenced the hue of the color. Nitrogen application caused a greener leaf color, and on the second harvest the leaves were greener. Dry matter content was not affected by nitrogen doses and changed between 6.29-6.40 %. Harvesting period had a significant effect on dry matter, delaying the harvest increased the dry matter content of endive leaves.



Figure 1. Effect of nitrogen doses yield of Endive

Conclusion

In the research nitrogen doses on yield and quality were determined. Nitrogen doses significantly affected yield, the highest endive yield (16530 kg/ha) obtained from 180 kg/ha dose. Delaying the harvest period increased the yield. Our results for plant weight were similar to the previous studies.

References

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