o nama sponzori linkovi novosti forum mapa weba prijava
sve o povrcu na jednom mjestu
savjeti edukacija ponuda - potražnja adresari proizvodnja Pregled cijena

FAO - ostali
Final Report

Country report Albania

Country report Bosnia and Herzegovina
· Federation of Bosna i Hercegovina
· Country report of Republika Srpska

Country report Hungary

Country report Greece

Country report Serbia and Montenegro

Country report Turkey

Country report Bulgaria

Country report Macedonia

Country report Croatia

FAO

Country report Turkey

PROTECTED CULTIVATION IN TURKEY
Y. Tüzel
Ege Univ. Faculty of Agriculture
Dept. of Horticulture
35100 Bornova, Izmir/TURKEY
tuzel@ziraat.ege.edu.tr

Abstract
Protected cultivation has an important role in horticultural activities. There was a 6-fold increase in protected cultivation area and a 3.5 to 10-fold increase in greenhouse and tunnel area during the last twenty-five years. According to the recent statistics, the total area of protected cultivation has reached 53 603 ha in 2002. Area under greenhouse is 57 % of the total while the rest is occupied by low plastic tunnels.
This paper is aimed to summarize the recent situation of protected cultivation in Turkey.

Introduction
The actual surface area of Turkey including lakes and rivers is 81.5 million ha (78 million land). The country is characterized by a great diversity of agroecological zones. Geographically Turkey is situated in temperate region, but the diverse nature of the landscape, and the existence in particular of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, results in significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other. While the coastal areas have milder climates, the inland Anatolian plateau has hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall.
In Turkey, forests occupy 20,703,000 ha of land and about 26.4 million ha of land is suitable for crop production. Cultivated area (26,379,000 ha) is devoted to field crops (18,207,000 ha), fallow (4,826,000 ha), orchards (1,418,000 ha), vegetable growing (793,000 ha), olive groves (600,000 ha) and vineyards (535,000 ha) (Fig. 1) (http://www.die.gov.tr/istTablolar.htm#tar).


Fig. 1. Proportions of cultivated and forest area.


In the last three decades, the contribution of agriculture to the GNP (Gross National Product) decreased from 35 % in 1970 to 13.5 % in 2000. Despite this decrease, agriculture still plays an important role in the national economy. About 14 % of the national income comes from agriculture of which almost two third is from crops. Crop production represents 55 % of the agricultural sector followed by livestock (34 %) whereas forestry and aquaculture occupies the rest (11 %). About 35 % of population lives in rural areas and 45 % of economically active population is employed in agriculture. In 2000, export of agricultural products (crop and livestock) was 2.6 billion USD (Bozkurt and Engiz, 2001).

Protected Cultivation
Protected cultivation includes the production in the greenhouses and under low plastic tunnels. Total protected cultivation has reached to 53 603 ha in 2002. Area under low plastic tunnel is 43 % (23049 ha) of the total while the rest (30 554 ha) is occupied by greenhouses (DIE, 2003) (Fig. 2).


Fig. 2. Distribution of low plastic tunnels, high tunnels, and glass and PE greenhouses (%).


There was a 6-fold increase in protected cultivation area and a 3.5 to 10-fold increase in greenhouse and tunnel area during the last twenty-five years. The protected cultivation area increased 53.7 % between 1993 and 2002 (Fig. 3).


Fig. 3. Development in protected cultivation between 1993-2002.


In 2001-2002, 75 % of the greenhouses and 70.3 % of protected cultivated area are located in the Mediterranean Region (Fig. 4 & 5). Those figures show that greenhouses and low plastic tunnels are mainly located on the south and west coasts of the country where the climatic conditions are favourable for protected cultivation without any additional heating.


Fig. 4. Distribution of greenhouses according to locations.



Fig. 5. Distribution of protected cultivation area according to locations.


The increase in greenhouse area is due to the high demand in domestic market, attractive crop prices, dominancy of family enterprises (of an average size of 1.000 - 3.000 m2), sharecropper system and 25 % subsidy between the years of 1990-1995 (Titiz, 2004).

Cultivated Crops
Vegetable growing with 96 % of the total greenhouse area stands first, ornamental plants (3 %) especially cut flowers occupy the second place and these are followed by fruits.
Vegetables: Among the vegetables, tomato with 47 % of total vegetable production under cover is the most prominent while cucumber, watermelon (in particularly under low plastic tunnels), pepper, eggplant, squash, melons and other vegetables are grown over rest of the area (Table 1). Lettuce growing has an increasing tendency, as well.
Floriculture: In recent years, cut flower production has gradually increased. Table 2 shows the production of cut flowers, ornamentals and bulbs in different regions. Cut flower contribution within the production and value is the highest.
Fruits: Banana plantations are under protection at a very limited area on the Mediterranean coast (66.597 tons). Strawberry takes the second place under cover (56.946 tons).

Table 1. The vegetable production figures under cover (DIE, 2003).
2000 2001 2002 2003
1.375.103 1.417.667 1.632.175 1.940.324
1.043.706 977.623 903.360 984.357
335.504 270.699 312.144 315.108
183.523 214.642 254.153 262.614
80.720 130.085 103.115 112.445
485.381 510.691 823.293 669.751
91.753 86.485 66.514 59.392
40.435 24.370 20.932 22.042
37.451 27.821 41.191 41049
3.478 3.232 3.542 4.074


Table 2. The cultivation area of cut flowers, ornamentals and bulbs (ha) (Özzambak, 2003).
Marmara Aegean Mediter-ranean Others Total % Product.
amount
(x106 number)
Value
(x106$)
%
350.2 336.5 319.7 17.4 1002.38 61.4 406 41 56
315 144.7 32.9 71.64 564.25 33.8 25-30 15 20
20.4 16.1 14.9 2.65 54.12 3.2 12-15 15 20
8.3 6.23 6.71 5.81 26.74 1.6 24-25 2.5 4
693.9 503.53 374.21 97.5 166.90 100 467 73.5 100


Present status of protected cultivation
Covering materials:
A total of 79 % of the greenhouses are covered with plastic films (PE) and the remaining with glass (Fig. 6).


Fig. 6. Distribution of covering materials used in greenhouses.


Plastic film for covering is generally polyethylene. It lasts for one year, whereas, there are UV, UV+IR, UV+IR+AF (antifog) and UV+IR+AF+AV (antivirus) resistant PE at the market which are lasting for more.

Ventilation:
Insufficient ventilation is still one of the most important problems particularly in the small-size plastic houses. Recent years, roof ventilation ratio has increased.

Heating:
There is no regular heating in the greenhouses. Roof sprinkler irrigation and simple firewood stoves and in recent years pulsed air boiler (with LPG, wood, fuel, etc) are used only to protect the plants against frost under conditions when temperature falls below 3-5oC.
In terms of renewable energies, geothermal is the most promising one but it is still not used effectively.

Technology of production
Seed supply: Seed production is carried out both by public and private sectors. The public sector produces seed of wheat, barley, rice and cotton whereas the private sector produces almost seed of all hybrids (maize, sunflower, vegetable), soybean, potato, vegetable and some forage crops. Some private companies import parental lines or basic seed and produce certified seed locally.
Most of the cultivars are F1 hybrids in protected cultivation. A large proportion of hybrid seeds are imported. Table 3 shows the quantity and value of seeds exported and imported (data from the Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Affairs).

Table 3. Quantity (tonnes) and value (USD) of seed import and export in Turkey (TKB, TÜGEM 2004).

 
 
Crop
Import Export
Quantity (t) Value ($) Quantity (t) Value ($)
2002 2003 2002 2003 2002 2003 2002 2003
Cereal crops 913 4 090 2 488 6 872 4 714 12 855 10 856 13 257
Industrial Crops 14 496 7 868 9 261 8 797 3 270 3 107 6 057 7 826
Forage Crops 403 581 426 817 1 --- ------ -----
Turf grass 2 131 2 809 3 047 4 045 27 31 90 108
Vegetables(hybrid) 411 222 36 255 44 193 10 3 113 80
Vegetables (stand.) 737 542 3 815 6 525 90 99 204 180
Veg. Total 1 148 764 40 070 50 718 100 102 317 260
TOTAL. 19 091 16 212 55 292 71 249 8 112 16 095 17 320 21 451


Seedling production: Generally farmers grow their own seedlings. Since high temperature and insect infection cause problems in autumn and low temperature and light effect spring season seedling production, farmers started to work with the seedling companies. Private seedling companies increased during the last few years. Already, there are 30 private companies producing seedlings. Their annual production area is over 40 ha. The annual production number is 800 million (Table 4).

Table 4. The change of seedling production between the years of 1999-2003 (Abak, 2003).
Year Number of company Area (Ha) Annual capacity (as number) x106)
1999 12 20 500
2003 30 40 800


Soil preparation: Production is still generally made in soil, but there is an increasing interest in the use of soilless culture techniques to overcome the problems originated from soil, and till now the soilless cultivation area has reached 75 ha at farmers' level. But it is evident that it will be increase, if the upcoming phase out of methyl bromide under the Montreal Protocol is taken into account. Table 5 shows the private companies using soilless culture technique for vegetable production.
Irrigation: Generally drip irrigation is used in the greenhouses. By the use of drip irrigation, water loss is decreased to the minimum.
Fruit-setting methods: The use of bumble bees is gradually increased. There are two companies (Biobest and Coppert)) selling hives to the growers.

Table 5. Companies using using soilless culture technique in Turkey.
Company Area (ha) Crops Place
Agrobay 12 Tomato, pepper İzmir
Özaltın 10 Tomato, pepper Antalya
Agroser 6 Tomato, pepper Antalya
Balabanlar 6 Tomato, pepper Antalya
Türkeli 6 Tomato, pepper İzmir
Antalya Tarım 4.2 Vegetable, cut flower Antalya
Akbulut 4 Cut flower Mersin
Halis Seracılık 3.2 Tomato Adana
Ayer 3 Cut flower Antalya
Yavuzlar 3 Tomato Antalya
Meristem 2.6 Cut flower Aydın
Sapeksa 2.5 Tomato Adana
Ekinciler 2.5 Tomato Mersin
Hasan Serin 2 Tomato, pepper Mersin
Naturel 2 Cut flower Mersin
Eylül tarım 1.4 Tomato Mersin
Göncüoğlu Tarım 1.5 Tomato Manisa
Yenteks 1 Tomato Adana
Tuğtekin Çiçekçilik Ltd. 0.8 Cut flower Yalova
Mustafa Çınar 0.6 Cucumber, tomato, lettuce İzmir
Ali Çevik 0.5 Tomato Adana
Hasan Hüseyin Erbudak 0.2 Cucumber İzmir
Şener Piyar 0.1 Cucumber, lettuce İzmir
Mehmet Aslan 0.1 Tomato, hıyar İzmir
TOPLAM 75.2



Plant Protection: The pesticide consumption increased 48.4 % between the years of 1979 and 2000 (Table 6). Although the annual increase is 2.3 %, 2/3 of the pesticide consumption is realized at the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions where the protected cultivation is intensive (Delen, 2002).

Table 6. Pesticide consumption (kg or liters).
Years
Pesticides 1979 1978 1994 1996 2000 2002
Insecticides 2287658 3303446 2064991 3027380 2694080 2250898
Acaricides 203107 240360 192279 223857 266641 296809
Oils 1594526 2147106 1970281 2871160 2606924 2428238
Fumigants and Nematocides 315665 322227 530738 1076661 994445 1559489
Rodenticides and Mollucides 5600 2124 2509 3268 6390 1794
Fungucides 1537315 2611960 2201406 2951191 2692957 1964292
Herbicides 2451977 3495044 3902588 3643971 3197078 3697396
TOPLAM 8 395 848 12 122 267 10 864792 13 797 488 12 458 515 12 198 916


Fresh Vegetable Exportation
The amount of fresh vegetable exportation is 554.000 tons (Table 7). The main importer countries are Russian Federation (23 %), Germany (19 %), Saudi Arabia (13 %) , Greece and Romania (7 %) (Table 8) (http://www.igeme.org.tr).

Table 7. Fresh vegetable exportation (Amount: 1000 Ton - Value: 1000 US$).
Crops 2000 2001 2002
        Amount Value       Amount Value        Amount      Value
Watermelon 11 1.332 11 1.614 11 1.821
Melon 6 1.503 10 2.129 11 2.368
Tomato 120 37.482 191 48.914 253 69.953
Potatoes 128 23.078 105 12.831 32 2.295
Dry onion 82 11.132 160 16.231 141 13.790
Pickling cucumber 8 3.503 20 7,074 24 8.340
Carrot 17 2.970 30 3,902 29 3.088
Pepper 32 20.313 40 19.651 51 25.000
Fresh vegetables 420 112.000 577 122.000 554 139.000
TOTAL 1.064 369.000 1.420 459.000 1.544 515.000


Table 8. Fresh vegetable importing countries (Amount: Ton - Value: US $)
Countries 2000 2002
  Amount Value Amount Value
Russia Fed. 43.459 12.427.682 124.246 32.347.814
Germany 34.292 21.749.890 38.801 25.722.560
Saudi Arabia 115.200 16.230.607 155.712 18.378.945
Greece 6.249 2.362.196 33.381 9.721.017
Romania 17.973 5.756.735 43.832 9.313.200
Holland 4.797 3.293.175 8.758 6.312.622
Yugoslavia Fed. 6.014 1.834.068 26.327 5.681.353
Austria 9.812 5.534.309 7.474 5.063.003
France 4.312 3.279.270 6.371 4.605.731
Switzerland 2.874 1.638.631 3.454 2.386.493
Macedonia 4.365 1.468.689 5.820 1.946.881
Bosna-Herzagovina 1.835 728.280 5.141 1.319.852
United Kingdom 1.089 796.760 1.444 1.110.544
Slovenia 1.171 499.338 2.840 1.016.659
Bulgaria 1.492 283.580 76.630 991.842
TOTAL 420.000 112.000.000 554.000 139.000.000


Conclusion
Turkey possesses some advantages in terms of climatic conditions, geothermal sources, cheap labor and thus increasing the chance of exportation. Introduction of sustainable technologies in greenhouses will help to support these advantages. The present status of protected cultivation in Turkey seems to be in a quite acceptable level; however, there is still need to update.

References
Abak, 2003. Sera ve serada üretim teknolojilerindeki gelişmeler. Workshop on "Protected Cultivation". 24 October, Izmir.
Bozkurt, B., M. Engiz, 2001. Focus on Seed Programs The Seed Industry in Turkey. Delen, N., 2002. Türkiye'de tarim ilaci kullanimi ve sorunlari. TAYEK/TYUAP Tarimsal Araştirma Yayin ve Egitim Koordinasyonu, Tarla Bitkileri Grubu 2002 Yili Bilgi Alişveriş Toplantisi Bildirileri. Eds. A.Ş.Tan, A. Aydin, N. Ercan, M.A. Gül, A. Oguz. Ege Tarimsal Araştirma Müdürlügü Yayin No 109:233-247.
http://www.die.gov.tr/istTablolar.htm#tar
http://www.igeme.org.tr/
http://www.icarda.cgiar.org/seed_unit/Pdf/Focus/FOCUS-Turkey.pdf
Özzambak, E., 2003. Süs bitkileri içinde kesme çiçegin yeri ve önemi. 2. Cut Flower Symposium, 23 October. Izmir.
Titiz, S., 2004. Modern Seracilik: Yatirimciya Yol Haritasi (Modern Greenhouse Technology: Roadmap for the investors). Ansiad, Antalya, 124 s.

Sva prava pridržava (c) 2003 - 2017 Zdravko Matotan & Abacus