Country report Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Protected cultivation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geographical position 42o06 - 45o03 N and 15o08 - 19o06 E
Total area 51.142 km2
Population 3.142 milion
Average family farm size 3.5 ha
Rural 2.198 million (52,75%)
Average family farm size 3.5 ha
- Protected cultivation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
There is no official information about the surface under the protected area in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina it is assessed at around 600 ha, out of which 15 ha are heated glasshouses and the rest of it is under plastic.
In Republika Srpska area under greenhouses - on average plastic houses encompasse aprox. 1.200 ha. All tipes of plastic house are included (low, medium-higd and high tunnels and greenhouses).
The biggest part of these surfaces is located in the southern parts - Herzegovina.
On average, around 20 ha of protected area is raised each year in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Expansion of surfaces and spreading of production is not planned. It is done spontaneously.
- More important regions for greenhouse production in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The southern parts of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Herzegovina have long tradition of production in protected area. Before war, most of this production had been concentrated here, 25 ha of heated glasshouses. Flowers and vegetables used to be produced here. Then, the biggest part of the production in protected area was well organized, in a modern way. Today, vegetables are usually being grown but a small number of sorts (pepper, tomato, lettuce, cucumber). The main problem for the farmers from this region is selling of produces. Import of vegetables is big, especially in the time when first crops from this region start to grow ripe.
In the northern part of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Northern Bosnia, greenhouse production is spreading intensively after the war. There was a small number of surfaces in this region before the war. Exceptions were some parts of Posavina.
With regard to the climatic conditions, the climate of Republica Srpska is characterized by moderately continental warm summers and mild winters (northen parts - Banja Luka, Bijeljina). The sothern parts (Herzegovina-Trebinje) are under the influence of the Mediterranean climate.
Climate conditions in Republica Srpska are similar climate conditions in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Cosidering the climatic conditions of the region it can be concluded that vegetable prodiction requires additional heating systes (northern parts)> Additional heating may be considerably reduced in the south.
Summers are dry and hot, winters are mild.
Average annual temperature is 14 - 16oC.
The number of days over 5 oC is 260, and over 10 oC is 220.
Annual quantity of precipitation is 1100 - 1500 mm.
Insolation is very big, from 2300 to 2500 hours annually.
Summers are warm, winters are moderately cold.
Average annual temperature is above 10oC.
Annual oscilliation of temperature is big, from 21 to 24 oC.
Annual quantity of precipitation is from 700 to 1500 mm.
Insolation is very big, from 1800 to 1900 hours annually.
- Characteristics of protected cultivation
Small-volume producers hold the biggest part of vegetable production in protected area.
There is a wide range of plastic greenhouse constructions, from home made wooden constructions with one layer of conventional PE film to modern constructions of galvanised steel covered with polycarbonate. Walk-in tunnels are made from plastic or steel and covered mostly with conventional PE films.
There is no information about surfaces of heated greenhouses. They are mostly heated by light fuel. For irrigation of tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers, drip irrigation system is largely used and for lettuces and transplant production, sprinkler system is used.
Hydroponic is used on very limited area mostly on rock wool or on wooden dust. For soil, disinfecting steam and chemicals as Basamid are used.
For tomato production in greenhouses are used F1: Monroe, Jeremy, Arleta, Monica with average yield of 10 - 12 kg per m2. The whole tomato greenhouse production is consumed in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Our market prefers mostly blocky type of pepper of white-yellow colour. Greenhouses use F1 hybrids: Istra, Bianka, Everest, Calibra. Average yield is 8 - 10 kg per m2. Whole production is used in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Cucumber production uses mostly the F1 hybrids: Astrea, Raider, Jazzer. Average yield of cucumber produced in greenhouses is 12 - 14 kg per m2. Production is mostly for domestic market.
Lettuce production uses varietes: Ravel and Rex, mainly. Average yield obtained in greenhouse production is 3,5 - 4,5 kg per m2. Like other vegetables from greenhouses, the whole production is for domestic market.
F1 hybrids and somewhat less cultivars (over 90% imported from the Netherlands, Germany, etc are mostly used in vegetable production.
The use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers is highly dependent on the financial capability of the producers.
The major plant diseases registered by the producers include> tomato and potato blight (Phitophtora infestans),alternaria leaf spot tomato and potato (Alternaria solani), down mildew of cucumber (Pseudoperonospora cubensis), powdery mildew of cucumber and wathermelon (Erisiphe cichoracearum). Lodging of seed plants due to Pitium sp, Rhisoctonia solani and Fusarium is major problem in nursery stock production.
In additional, viral and bacterial disease pose the main problem in the production of some cultivars.
- The problems in protected cultivation of vegetables
The first and the bigest problem for vegetable production in protected areas is the high rate of import of all kinds of vegetables.
The second problem is unorganised market. There are only few organisations, which organise vegetable production and buy vegetables from farmers.
There is no support from government for protected cultivation of vegetables. There is certain international organisation (of humanitarian character, mainly), which introduces different projects of greenhouse production, such as Luteran World Service, GTZ and DECA.
The lack of financial means and of suitable credits is the obstacle for expansion of this production. The average price of a 100-200 m2 greenhouses ranged from 20-30 KM/m2.
Further problems are: the problem concerning import of qualitative seed, the lack of education of farmers and the lack of advisory activities.
Curently the producers knowledge with regard to the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides is rather poor. The development of an extension service is expected to contribute to the enhancement of the required skills in plastic house vegetable production.