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FAO - ostali
Final Report

Country report Albania

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· Federation of Bosna i Hercegovina
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FAO

Country report Albania

The development of the protected environment
The vegetable production in the protected environments, (greenhouses and tunnels), is one of the priority of Albanian agriculture. This is due to the high efficiency level of the production related with the other plant productions and of the demand level for these products. These productions have an important level of production and the market is in most of the cases assured. On the other side Albania is an Mediterranean country and can offer favorable climatic conditions for the development of this method with all types of vegetables.

I. Greenhouses.

The surface level of the greenhouses during 1990 -2004 is:
(in ha)
  1990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
Heating glass greenhouses 150 10 15. 20,5 14,9 14,8 18,3
Plastic heating greenhouses - - - 1,5 1,9 2,8 9,3
Non heating glass greenhouses 200 157,6 131,5 127,5 114,5 94,6 79,4
Non heating plastic greenhouses 730 13,4 126. 222,5 342,5 399,6 553,6
TOTAL 1080 181. 272,5 372. 473,8 511,8 660,6


-The period 1990 - 2000 was accompanied by radical changes in the Albanian agriculture, the decollectisation process and the agrarian reform done in 1992, had an negative impact in the greenhouse system and most of them was destroyed due to a long process of privatization.
-To analyze the development of greenhouses in Albania during the last ten years (1994-2004) we will refer to 1994, this is due to the fact that from this year and on the sector is tending to be rehabilitate,
-Form 1994 the greenhouse surface is grown by three.
-From 1994 is grown by four the surface of plastic greenhouses, now the farmers are tending to implement contemporaneous types of greenhouses.
-The glass greenhouses surface heating or not are in continuous diminutions. The technologies that they use are obsolete ('60) and are implanted in Albania during the '70. so the are physically and morally totally amortized. The existent surface in regression.
-The annual rate of greenhouse is of 50 - 60 ha par year. Farmers, with proper financial funds, generally make the implementation of greenhouses.
-The plastic not heating greenhouses are generally simple one where technologic element as irrigation, nutrition thought irrigation, ventilation etc. are not present. -During the last years, we can see the tendency of farmers to implement greenhouses of contemporaneous technology, helped also from the Agricultural and Food Ministry.
- The greenhouses are located generally in the west side of the country, where the climate more favorable. In Lushja district that takes part in this area are located more than 40% of the total greenhouse surface.
The augmentation of the greenhouses surface, is accompanied by a production augmentation, as is shown by the table:
in tons
  1990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
Glass heating greenhouse 14500 550 1010 1649 1241 1071 1152
Plastic heating greenhouse - - - 180 448 1157 773
Glass not heating greenhouses 16500 5260 8970 6852 8842 7267 4471
Plastic not heating greenhouses 54000 656 9741 16493 29067 33029 46369
TOTAL 85000 6470. 19721 25174 39598 42210 52765


- Excluding the glass not heating greenhouses, where the yield has decreased from 1994 till now, all the other types of greenhouses, have noted an yield increase during the respective period. It is important to underline the important yield increase for the plastic not heating greenhouses.
- The vegetable production in greenhouses is variable due to the level of technology application in respective greenhouses, particularly important in the yield rate is the creation of the appropriate climate by heating the greenhouses, but the price of heating products is prohibitive, for the farmers.

The yield of production is variable according to the technologic level of the greenhouse. We should underline that the majority of the greenhouses (the existent or the new one) have a low technologic level, without technologic elements. So the yields are not very respectable.
KV/ha.
  1990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
Glass heating greenhouse 970 550 673 804 836 1071 630
Plastic heating greenhouse - - - 1200 790 1157 831
Glass not heating greenhouses 825 334 682 537 772 768 563
Plastic not heating greenhouses 740 479 773 741 841 830 838
TOTAL 787 357 724 677 836 825 800


-The vegetable yields in the greenhouses are grown in a respective period for all the greenhouses types.
-The plastic not heating greenhouses present stabilized yield during the period, because they are not determinate by other external factor as the heating etc.

-The yield in the glass greenhouse is decreasing due to the low and obsolete level of technology.
-The yield of greenhouses the type is depending form the vegetables structure applied in the respective greenhouse type.
Two are the main cultures that are cultivate in the Albanian greenhouses, tomato and cucumber, because these cultures are judges as a most efficient one. The augmentation of the greenhouse surface has created some problems in the marketing of the cultures. The offered quantity in some period of the year is bigger than the capacity of the market demand; the situation influenced on the price of these cultures. During the last years the trend is to sow other types of vegetables, like pepper, pumpkin, melon, string bean etc.
The vegetable crop surface during the period is:
in ha
  1990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
Tomato 750 132,2 199,8 246,2 298,7 309,3 371,3
Cucumber 250 9,8 51,1 95,6 152,6 153,2 207.
Other vegetables 80 38,9 21,6 30,2 22,6 49,4 82,3
TOTAL 1080 181. 272,5 372. 473,5 511,9 660,6


-The increase of the greenhouse surface is accompanied with the increase of the surface sowed with tomato and cucumber. The surface of the other vegetables (pepper, melon, string bean pumpkin etc.) is always very low except the last two years where the trend is positive for the other vegetable compared with the based crops (tomato and cucumber).

The table shows the vegetable structure in the greenhouses:
in %
  1990 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004
Tomato 69,5 73,1 73,3 66,2 63,1 60,4 56,2
Cucumber 23,1 5,4 18,8 25,7 32,2 29,9 31,3
Other vegetables 7,4 21,5 7,9 8,1 4,7 9,7 12,5
TOTAL 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


-The information shows the predominance of the base cultures (tomato, cucumber) in the structure of the vegetables planted in the protected areas.
-The trend of other plant cultivation is becoming more important, together with the precocity index with help the greenhouse system to be more efficient and important in the future .

II. Low tunnels

The cultivation of the vegetable in the low tunnels is an old practice of cultivation but this method is spread during the last years. This method is used specially in micro areas where the climate conditions, are much more favorable. Using the appropriate conditions of climate, covering the land, and using a contemporaneous technology, the farmers can obtain prominent results, especially in the precocity index.

The tunnel surface during the period and vegetable type is:
In ha
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Melon 36 458 273 730 1025,2
Cucumber 21 9 9 4 51,7
Pumpkin 3 - 1 - -
Tomato 7 2 1 3 7,01
Other vegetables - 1 2 5 9,5
TOTAL 67 470 286 742 1093,41


- The tunnels surface sowed with vegetables has grown during the period except some variations.
-The vegetable cultivation in tunnels is done respecting the technologies used also in the other regional countries (land and plant covering, directed nutrification and irrigation etc.)
-The main sowed plants are from the cucurbitaceous family as the water melon and melon.

The production level during the period is:
in ton
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Melon 1436 23448 11578 25844 42730
Cucumber 482 474 706 155 386
Pumpkin 60 - 6 - -
Tomato 369 112 72 106 333,5
Other vegetables - 113 45 144 375
TOTAL 2347 24147 12407 26249 42824,5

The production growth is due to the surface augmentation because the yield is not increased considerably during the period.

The future prospects of the protected areas.

The futures prospects of the protected areas can follow two ways:

  1. The augmentation of the surface with an annual rate of 40-60 ha, so we can foresee that in 2010 we will reach the level of 1000 ha of greenhouses planted with vegetables. The augmentation of the low tunnels surface will be more important, due to the low level of investment per surface necessary for this technology compared with the greenhouse one.
    The trend shows us that the greenhouses that will be plastic one, simple (low technologic elements), less implanted will be the technologic modern one.
    The investment funding will be:
    - Private funding for the investment of the farmers or private subjects that are specialized on the greenhouses cultivations systems.
    -Another alternative will be the funding by the government programs
  2. the greenhouses development will ameliorate the technology of existing surfaces. The implementation of the new technologic systems like dropping irrigation systems, directed nutritive systems, ventilation, will ameliorate the production index of these surfaces and what is the most important the precocity and latecomer index.
Regional collaboration
There are some elements in the greenhouses systems that can find many possibilities collaborations. The ways to realize these objectives are:

-Collaboration for certain problematic elements.

-The scientific information exchange and the new findings about the genetic materials sowing materials etc.
There is a variety of possibilities for collaboration, as the most important we can mention:

-Determination of the most appropriate type of greenhouses for the region, or specific part of it.
-Determination of the most appropriate type of covering systems, according to the greenhouses type.

-The most effective systems of heating and ventilation for the specific climatic conditions of the region.

-The most efficient systems of plant alimentation and irrigation in the greenhouses.
-Sowing materials that can use all the possibilities of production offered by greenhouses systems.

-Culture systems for different plants in the greenhouses, combining the new techniques with the traditional elements of each country.

The contacts points for each country should be the research institutions of each country that works on these problems. On the case of Albania the most appropriate institution can be "The vegetables and potatoes institution" for the coordinator role with the other scientific institutions in the country.

Shpetim GURI

Responsible of the Plant Production Sector

September 2004

Greenhouses and tunnels surface according to districts for the year 2004
In ha

No

Districts
Total greenhouses Greenhouses heating glass Greenhouses heating plastics Greenhouses not heating glass Greenhouses not heating plastic Tunnels
1. Berat 65.   0,3 6. 58,7 94.
2. Bulqize -          
3. Delvine 6,1   0,4 4,4 1,3 58.
4. Devoll -          
5. Diber 0,5       0,5  
6. Durres 39,1 12. 4,1 10,2 12,8 2,1
7. Elbasan 58,5 2,8 0,2 10,2 45,3  
8. Fier 41,5     15,9 25,6 221.
9. Gramsh 1,3       1,3  
10. Gjirokaster 4,2     1,8 2,4  
11. Has -          
12 Kavaje 4,1       4,1  
13. Kolonje 0,5       0,5  
14. Korce 0,3       0,3  
15. Kruje 9,9     4,7 5,2 0,1
16. Kucove 33.       33. 60.
17. Kukes -          
18. Lac 2,8       2,8  
19. Lezhe 2,3   0,5   1,8  
20. Librazhd -          
21. Lushnje 272,5   2,4 4,3 265,8 66.
22. M.madhe 1,2       1,2 57,8
23. Mallakaster 2,2     2,2    
24. Mat 1,8       1,8  
25. Mirdite 0,8   0,8      
26. Peqin 15,5   0,2   15,3  
27. Permet 0,6       0,6 0,01
28. Pogradec 0,2       0,2  
29. Puke -          
30. Sarande 2.       2. 500.
31. Skrapar 1.     1.    
32. Shkoder 21.     3,5 17,5 1,9
33. Tepelene 0,6       0,6  
34. Tirane 63,5 3,5 0,3 15,2 44,5  
35. Tropoje -          
36. Vlore 8,6   0,1   8,5 32,5
  Total 660,6 18,3 9,3 79,4 553,6 1093,41


Greenhouses and tunnels producion according to districts for the year 2004
in tons

No

Districts
Total greenhouses Greenhouses heating glass Greenhouses heating plastics Greenhouses not heating glass Greenhouses not heating plastic Tunnels
1. Berat 6229.   35. 541. 5753. 6815.
2. Bulqize            
3. Delvine 456.   40. 342. 64. 3320.
4. Devoll            
5. Diber 42.       42.  
6. Durres 2015. 862. 220. 424. 509.  
7. Elbasan 2909. 23. 12. 350. 2524.  
8. Fier 2872.     1000. 1872. 6895.
9. Gramsh 164.     - 164.  
10. Gjirokaster 163.     89. 74.  
11. Has            
12 Kavaje 354.       354.  
13. Kolonje 10.       10.  
14. Korce 11.       11.  
15. Kruje 521.     201. 320. 5.
16. Kucove 3232.       3232. 3550.
17. Kukes            
18. Lac 182.       182.  
19. Lezhe 116.   25.   91.  
20. Librazhd            
21. Lushnje 25860.   360. 384. 25116. 2577.
22. M.madhe 81.       81. 613.
23. Mallakaster 57.     57.    
24. Mat 194.   46.   194.  
25. Mirdite 46.   20.      
26. Peqin 1280.       1260.  
27. Permet 37.       37. 0.5
28. Pogradec 17.       17.  
29. Puke            
30. Sarande 61.       61. 16000.
31. Skrapar 78.     78.    
32. Shkoder 1696.     248. 1448. 86.
33. Tepelene 51.       51.  
34. Tirane 3232. 267. 3. 747. 2195.  
35. Tropoje         .  
36. Vlore 719.   12.   707. 882.
  Total 52765 1152. 773. 4471. 46369. 42824.5

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