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FAO - ostali
Final Report

Country report Albania

Country report Bosnia and Herzegovina
· Federation of Bosna i Hercegovina
· Country report of Republika Srpska

Country report Hungary

Country report Greece

Country report Serbia and Montenegro

Country report Turkey

Country report Bulgaria

Country report Macedonia

Country report Croatia

FAO

Final Report
TECHNICAL REPORT
FIRST COORDINATING MEETING OF FAO REGIONAL WORKING GROUP ON GREENHOUSE CROPS IN THE SEE COUNTRIES

20-22 October 2004
Budapest/Hungary

Background

An FAO workshop on greenhouse crop production in the South East European region was held in Thessaloniki (Greece), on the occasion of the 2nd International Balkan Symposium on Vegetables and Potatoes in October 2000 with the participation of the following countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, The FYR of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Turkey and Serbia and Montenegro. As a result of that workshop, the participants recommended that FAO takes the initiative to formally establish a regional working Group for Greenhouse crop production in the sub region.

As a follow-up, FAO organized a series of surveys that have been carried out in various countries of the region to assess the opportunities and constraints of greenhouse crop sector in cooperation with the concerned national horticulture institutions and growers' associations. This has allowed to prepare baseline documents, which provide for an interesting background to develop future initiatives.

Consequently FAO has sought and obtained the endorsement from the Ministries of Agriculture for the formal establishment of a regional working group on greenhouse crop production in the SEE countries. The 12 countries have responded positively and have nominated a national representative who attended the first coordinating meeting held in Budapest from 20 to 22 October 2004

First Coordinating Meeting of FAO Regional Working Group on Greenhouse Crops in the SEE Countries was held in Budapest on 20-22 October 2004. There were participants from Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Crotia, FYR of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovenia and Turkey (Annex I, participant list).

The program started with the opening session on Wednesday, 20 October 2004. Dr. Baudoin welcomed the participants and wished a fruitful meeting and successful collaboration. The participants introduced themselves.
Ms. G. Popsimonova and Ms. Y. Tüzel were nominated as voluntarily for the technical secretariat.
On behalf of the FAO sub regional office, Ms. Maria Kadlecikova welcomed the participants and gave information on the main activities of the FAO sub-regional office: Coordinating activities in 20 countries & Byelorussia; land consolidation and land management programs and rural development activities. With the WB and EU Commission some projects have been conducted for involvement of minorities and endangered social groups; anti/flood measures in environmentally sound manner; livestock management project (animal health); genetic resources. Horticultural projects have gained importance (i.e. tomato production with IPM in Poland). This kind of production could be one of the solutions for the high unemployment rates in the region (from 15 % up to 60 % in the rural areas).
The agenda of the meeting was accepted with some minor changes in the agenda of the meeting (Annex IT, the agenda)

Introduction of the FAO Regional Working Group on Greenhouse Crop Production in the SEE Region

The general objective is to promote cooperation among the SEE countries on the subject of greenhouse crop production and specifically to enhance the scientific knowledge and technical capacity of the growers in order to improve the competiveness of greenhouse crop sector. Nomination of the participants represents the willingness of the governments to cooperate.
Five technical subgroups were proposed:

  1. Plant material: species, cultivars, propagation, diversification,
  2. Technology: greenhouse design, covering materials, climate control, irrigation, fertigation, soilless culture,
  3. Cultivation practices: density, training & pruning, plant nutrition, irrigation, weed control,
  4. 4. IPM: biological control & safe application of environmentally friendly pesticides,
  5. Production economics, quality norms and standards.

Proposed modus operandi is one regional coordinator for two years on consensus with mandate to monitor the work plan and organize next coordinating meeting combined with updates on new technologies and issues.
The activities and expected results and outcomes are as follows:
  1. Information, management and dissemination (Technical publications, newsletters, data collection and exchange)
  2. Training and demonstration (international conferences, symposia-national training sessions, preparation & publication of training material, extension manual, seminars, field days, IPP cards)
  3. Project formulation and implementation
    National projects (UNDP, GCP, TCP, EU, etc)

Introduction of HORTIVAR

Dr. Baudoin raised the question of recording the varieties and tracing their performances in the past, the appropriate characteristics for cultivation in certain conditions etc. Those questions could be answered by HORTIVAR. Also information was given on IPP cards, GRIS (Greenhouse Information System) and SCIS (Soilless Culture Information System).

Main Technical Report

Main Technical Report, prepared by Y. Tüzel & P. Pandelli, was presented by Prof. Tüzel. It was a general interview on climate, agricultural potential and protected cultivation in SEE countries. Also main characteristics and constraints oarm size, type of the construction, production technology, availability and the cost of the inputs, crop diversification, production material, lack of farmers' organizations, marketing and training in protected cultivation were emphasized.

COUNTRY PAPERS

Albania: Protected cultivation is mainly concentrated on the coastal areas where the climatic conditions are available. The area increased 300 % between the years of 1994 and 2004 (60 ha/year). Non heated glasshouses have decreased whereas non heated plastic houses have increased. The main crops under protected cultivation are tomato and cucumber.
Bosnia & Herzegovina: 52.75 % of the total is rural population. 95 % of the protected cultivation area is covered with plastic. Most of the greenhouses are unheated. There is soilless cultiation in 3 ha. The main crops under protected cultivation are tomato and pepper and those crops are followed by lettuce production in a year. The growing season starts in January/February in the south and in April in the north.
Bulgaria: The vegetable grown area and vegetable production were 136 677 ha and 1.583.480 tons, respectively in 2002. 58.118 tons vegetable production comes from protected cultivation. Geothermal water is used for heating in the glasshouses.
Croatia: Vegetable growing area is 55.000 ha. The increase of protected cultivation is 10 % per year in the last four years. There is soilless culture in 4 ha. The most important problem is marketing. Therefore a web site (www.povrce.com) was created in order to provide information related to the sector including information on marketing possibilities.
Greece: The total cultivated area is 3.92 million ha and vegetable is grown in 3.4 % of the total. The amount of production coming from the greenhouses and tunnels were 459.098 and 376.598 tons, respectively. Growers provide 40 % subsidy for production. There is 10 % extra subsidy for the young population.
Soilless culture are is approximately 100 ha.
Hungary: In 2003, vegetable production area in open field conditions and under protected cultivation were 101.903 and 5.185 ha, respectively. The average holding size is between 1000 and 3000 m2. According to a research result conducted in this country, minimum 3500 m2 is profitable.
FYR of Macedonia: The ratio of agricultural population to the total is 13.58. Since the heating cost is high (70 %), unheated tunnels are common. There is 1 ha soilless culture area.
Moldova: The rural population is 54 % of the total. There are small scale farms with an area of between 1.6 and 2.0 ha. The vegetable production and the yield were 387.000 tons and 7.8 t/ha, respectively. The cost of the seedling is given as 2 cents per plant.
Romania: Marketing was emphasied as the main problem. The director of a joint company with 38 shareholders (90 ha) gave information: Main advantage is that there are highly educated people, there are several departments on mechanization and plant protection. They produce 19,000 tons; 20% cucumber, 58% tomato, 7% sweet pepper, and 11% others (lettuce, short cucumbers). They have good collaboration with the Research institute. Also they try to implement new technologies drip irrigation, biological control, etc. Their main problems are high consumption of energy (trying to solve it with more boiler houses for smaller units), seed quality (now he supplies the seeds directly from the Dutch/ claims that there are double standards by the Dutch companies). The price for heating is 55% of the total cost of production.
Serbia & Montenegro: Only 5-10 % of the protected cultivation area includes high plastic greenhouses, the rest is low and walk in tunnels. Young people are more and more willing to deal with agriculture.
Slovenia: Vegetable grown area is 3228 ha. There is 2.5 ha soilless culture. Integrated production is introduced in the horticultral crop production. In 2003, the ratio of integrated production is 21 %. Also an official logo is used in integrated production. Organic production is realized at the 4 % of the horticulture production with 20018 ha acreage.
Turkey: The protected cultivation area increased 53.7 % between the years of 1993 and 2002. 79 % of the total area is covered plastic. Vegetable is grown in the 96 % of the total area and followed by floriculture (3 %) and fruit production (1 %).

The distribution of protected area in the countries is summarized in the following table.
  Year Glasshouse PE greenhouse, walk-in tunnels, low plastic tunnels, mulching & direct covers TOTAL
Albania 2004 97.7 562.9 660.6
Bosnia & Herzegovina 2004   1200 2000
Bulgaria 2001 642.2 1026.7 1668.9
Crotia 2004 40 1370 1410
FYR of Macedonia 2003 185 10000 10185
Greece 2002   14733 14733
Hungary 2003     5185
Moldova 2003 40 253 293
Romania   1300 6000 7300
Serbia & Montenegro       10000
Slovenia       140
Turkey 2002     53603
TOTAL        


Main constraints in the Region:
- Lack of crop diversification,
- Vegetable import,
- Marketing (unorganized markets, etc.)
- Lack of financial support & credits,
- Pest & disease management,
- Lack of extension service
- Farm size,
- Plant material (seed supply, seedling production, etc),
- Low technology
- Cost of the inputs,
- Lack of farmers organizations,
- Standardization, quality norms,
- Timing of the production,
- Changes in prices,
- Post harvest facilities,
- Lack of training

FIELD TRIP (Thursday 21 October 2004)

Research Institute for Vegetable Crops (ZKI) (in Keschkemet):
Janosh Vitchaski, Director General of the Institute gave an introduction about the Institute. Last year was 60th anniversary of the institute. The main activities of the Institute are plant breeding, seed/production including finalization of the seed and marketing. The breeding programs are on paprika, processing tomato, pickling cucumbers, onion, peas, beans and watermelon. Marketing and sales are related also to other, previously breed crops. Total number of employees is 100, out of which 30% in research, 30% in seed production and the rest for services.
Arpad Pavelka, Sales Manager, presented the modus operandi of the institute and answered numerous questions. The approach towards the marked depends on the target group. There are two groups of clients: hobby growers and professionals.
The institute is equipped with packaging machines for large and small seeds that were demonstrated to the participants.

ARPAD Agrar Cooperation (Szentes): Ferenz Ledo is General Director and President of Producers Organization. The cooperation has 23 ha glasshouses + 25 heated plastic tunnels (geothermal)+50 non heated plastic tunnels. Turn over is 40 million EUR. Producers organization works on 5,000 ha in open field, that is irrigated. Main crops are wheat, maize, soybean and fodder crops. There are 570 members involved in the protected crops production as secondary activity.
The geothermal water comes from 14 wells that are 172/220 m deep. The water temperature is 76-980C. Firstly, the water is distributed in the glasshouses, than in the plastic houses to finish finally in the collecting lake to be deposited.
19 ha are with soil-less cultivation on rock wool, mainly with paprika, that is the largest soil-less area in Hungary.
The premises are equipped with lab for soil analyses and they apply biological control.
There is advisory service that uses Bio best Company services in all aspects. HACCP standards applied, and from this year EUREPGAP on demand of their customers - three of the six largest store chains in Hungary. Certification body - Veritas.
The participants visited two glasshouses with soil-less cultivation of pepper and tomato.

Private farmer family (Seget): Goubos Poul Shistelec - plastic house production
Total area of 10.5 ha, out of which 2.5 ha are under plastic houses. New plastic house is 0.8 ha, with double PE layers. The plastic house is locally constructed with unit price of 30 $US/m2. Heating is with gas and electricity, by ground pipes and side walls (interesting hint for additional heating with tractor coolers with hot water in combination with fans). There are 20,000 l of warm water in the complete heating system. The plastic house is 7m high in the ridge. There is new paprika variety Century. The main constraint is the price of construction material (the price of iron being 150% higher) in three months) and price deviations of electricity. The main crops are paprika and lettuce. The plastic houses are being replaced every second year.

FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION
The general objective is to promote cooperation among the SEE countries on the subject of greenhouse crop production and specifically to enhance the scientific knowledge and technical capacity of the growers in order to improve the competiveness of greenhouse crop sector. The expected result is adoption of Good Agricultural Practices in greenhouse crop production.
Strategy components could be as follows:
- Favor production for the national market (labeling destination),
- Support with 'green measures',
- Facilitate access to information
- Training

Technical Sub-groups (TSGs)
Five technical subgroups were proposed:
  1. Plant material: species, cultivars, seedlings, diversification,
  2. Technology: greenhouse design, covering materials, climate control, soilless culture,
  3. Cultivation practices: density, plant training & pruning, grafting, plant nutrition, irrigation & fertigation, weed control,
  4. IPM: biological control & safe application of environmentally friendly pesticides, pollinator insects,
  5. Marketing & Quality: norms and standards, production economics.

The participant countries were grouped according to their willingness to share their experience and need their improvement (Annex III, Thematic domains) and the leading countries proposed for those technical subgroups.
Three different clusters of activities:
    1. Information, management and dissemination Newsletter, technical publications, country case studies, data collection and exchange, web sites. 2. Training and related training materials For policy makers, scientists, trainers, growers 3. Fund raising- Project formulation and implementation National project-bilateral or multilateral cooperation projects (UNDP, GCP, TCP, EU, etc) - partnerships (CIHEAM)

Training will be the core of the group.

WORKPLAN FOR 2004-2006:
Prof. Y. Tüzel from Turkey was proposed by the WG as a Regional Coordinator for 2005-2006 and Dr. Zdravko Matotan will be the co-coordinator during that period and will take the coordinatorship in 2006.
The second coordinating will be held in Izmir/Turkey in October, 2006. The workplan proposed by the working group members are given in Annex IV.

ANNEX III. Thematic domains
1.Plant material:(Species-cultivars-seeds-seedlings- diversification)
2. Construction and materials for Greehouse production : Greenhouse design-covering materials-Climate control, heating
3. Cultivation technology: (density; plant training and pruning-grafting- irrigation-plant nutrition and fertigation- irrigation- weed control, Soilless culture, pollinator insects)
4. IPM (biological control and safe application of environmental friendly pesticides)
5. Post harvest Handling, Marketing, Quality, Norm and standards and labelling)-Production economics-Producers organisations
6. Information management (databases, websites, newsletters)
 
To share
BULGARIA
CROATIA
HUNGARY
MOLDOVA (Seedling production)
SERBIA MONTENEGRO (Diversification)
 
 
ALBANIA
HUNGARY
MACEDONIA
(geothermal heating)
GREECE
TURKEY ( Soil less and organic agric.)
ROMANIA (Software for irrigation and nutrition)
SERBIA MONTENEGRO (plant nutrition and fertigation)
BULGARIA
MACEDONIA & ROMANIA
(Biological control)
GREECE
(HUNGARY)
SLOVENIA (Development of vegetable integrated production)
ROMANIA (EU Legislation for production and marketing of vegetable products)
CROATIA
Need improvement
MACEDONIA
 
 
 
 
MOLDOVA
ROMANIA
SLOVENIA
BULGARIA
CROATIA
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
ALBANIA
MACEDONIA
ROMANIA
SLOVENIA
GREECE
HUNGARY
ALBANIA
SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO
SLOVENIA
BULGARIA
CROATIA
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
ALBANIA
MOLDOVA
MACEDONIA
SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO
TURKEY
 


ANNEX IV. Workplan for 2005-2006.
FAO Regional Working Group on Greenhouse Crops Production in the SEE Countries
Workplan proposal 2005-2006
Proposed Regional Coordinator : Prof. Yüksel TÜZEL (Turkey)
What Where When Who How
1.Plant material:(Species-cultivars-seeds-seedlings- diversification)
Suggested lead country: Hungary, Andrea Moor, Tompos Daniel
Regional scientific workshop on
seedling production
Hungary
Corvinus University
Faculty of Horticulture Science
Spring 2005 Corvinus University To be investigated:
-private sector
-university
-government
National training workshop for growers on seedling production Bulgaria, Plovdiv May 2006 Vegetable Crop Research Institute, Plovdiv To be investigated:
-SAPARD
Seminar on seedling production/national Moldova, Chisinau April, 2006 Victor Rosca
State Agriculturel University, Moldova
Private companies/FAO
Seedling production/ national seminar Turkey, Izmir November 2004 Birol Oncel University/Private company
Diversification of production in greenhouses
Sub regional
Smederevska Palanka/Serbia and Montenegro November, 2005 Katerina Zarubica Ministry, Institute, Private farms, FAO
2. Construction and materials for Greenhouse production: Greenhouse design-covering materials-Climate control, heating
Suggested lead country: Albania,





Regional training workshop on greenhouse design and construction Albania, Tirana May 2005 Xhevat Shima
Director of Institute of Vegetables
To be investigated:
-Ministry of Agriculture
-Agroblend
-Jazexhi





Regional Workshop on efficient use of heating with geothermal water Macedonia, Gevgelija March 2006 Gordana Popsimonova 70% local funds and rest FAO
3. Cultivation technology (density; plant training and pruning-grafting- irrigation-plant nutrition and fertigation- irrigation- weed control)
Suggested lead country: Greece
Regional trainig workshop on soiless culture Bulgaria, Bourgas or Plovdiv May-June 2005 Bulgarhydroponic, Bourgas
Vegetable Crop Research Institute, Plovdiv
To be investigated:
-SAPARD
Regional scientific workshop on soiless culture and greenhouse technology Hungary
Budapest, Szentes area
2006 Corvinus University To be investigated:
-private sector
-university
-government
Regional training workshop on good cultivation practices Greece, Crete Winter 2006
To be investigated:
-Ministries of Agriculture and Foreign Affairs
-private sector
Organic vegetable production *publication of guidelines
Slovenia 2006 Martina Bavec Univ. and FAO and MAFF
Organic vegetable production in the greenhouse
Publication of research work
Turkey 2006 Y. Tuzel Univ. and TUBITAK
Organic vegetable production
TCP project
Slovenia 2006/2008 Martina Bavec Univ. and FAO and MAFF
Organic vegetable production in the greenhouse
Regional training Workshop
Turkey 2006 Y. Tuzel FAO
Soilless Culture production in the greenhouse
Regional Workshop
Turkey October 2006 Y. Tuzel FAO
Computer program for optimization the Org. and mineral fertilization
Sub regional workshop
Romania April 2006 Victor Lacatus Private company and MAFRD
4. IPM (biological control and safe application of environmental friendly pesticides-pollinator insects)
Suggested lead country: Bulgaria
National training workshop on IPM, pesticides and bioagents Bulgaria, Plovdiv June 2006 Vegetable Crop Research Institute, Plovdiv To be investigated:
-SAPARD
Biological Pest Management
National seminar for trainers and then seminars for farmers
Slovenia 2005, 2006
Martina Bavec Univ. and Agric. Chamber and Producers organizations
Biological control in greenhouses
Sub regional workshop
Macedonia May, 2005 Gordana Univ. and FAO and private companies
5. Marketing & Quality (norms and standards and labelling)-Production economics-Producers organisations
Suggested lead country: Slovenia
EUREP GAP Standarts
Regional workshop for trainers and then farmers
Slovenia October 2005 Martina Bavec Univ., Food Plus Org., MAFF, Association of Int.Veg.Pro., FAO
Development of Integrated Vegetable Production Systems
Regional scientific workshop
Slovenia May 2006 Martina Bavec FAO, MAFF
Legislation for production and marketing of greenhouse vegetables according to EU regulations
Sub regional seminar
 
 
Romania 2005 Sep. Iulia Bosoanca MAFRD.
6. Information management (databases, websites, newsletters)
Suggested lead country: Croatia
Regional scientific workshop on information management, web site for the vegetable growers in greenhouses
Croatia July 2005 Matotan Zdravko To be investigated:
-Split, Institute of Mediterranean Crops
Subregional (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, etc.) training workshop on the construction and management of a website. Croatia July-August, 2005 Matotan Zdravko To be investigated:
-Split, Institute of Mediterranean Crops
Contributions to working group newsletter (3/year)
Dec. 2004
April 2005
Sept. 2005
Jan. 2006
April 2006
Sept. 2006
regional coordinator FAO (printing, distribution)
Regional training workshop on HORTIVAR & Good morning horticulture Serbia and Montenegro
Croatia
February 2005
February 2006
FAO FAO
Regional coorporation on creating a website All countries Continuous Coordinator in cooperation with FAO FAO


2004 2005 2006

11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1.Plant material:(Species-cultivars-seeds-seedlings- diversification)















Regional scientific workshop on seedling production HU

 



















National training workshop for growers on seedling production BU






















Seminar on seedling production/regional MO
















 







Seedling production/ national seminar TU  
























Diversification of production in greenhouses SR - S&M











 







































2. Technology : Greenhouse design-covering materials-Climate control, Soilless culture

















Regional training workshop on greenhouse technology R AL





 


















Regional Workshop on Efficient use of heating with geothermal water R MA














 


































3. Cultivation practices (density; plant training and pruning-grafting- irrigation-plant nutrition and fertigation- irrigation- weed control)

















Regional training workshop on good cultivation practices GR














 









Organic vegetable production *publication of guidelines SL

























Organic vegetable production *publication of guidelines SL

























Organic vegetable production SL

























Organic vegetable production in the greenhouse TU

























Computer program for optimization the Org. and mineral fertilization RO

























Regional scientific workshop on soiless culture and greenhouse technology HU

























Regional trainig workshop on soiless culture R BU

























4. IPM (biological control and safe application of environmental friendly pesticides-pollinator insects)

















National training workshop on IPM, pesticides and bioagents BU


















 





Biological Pest Management SL


















 





Biological control in greenhouses MA





 













































5. Marketing & Quality (norms and standards and labelling)-Production economics-Producers organisations

















EUREP GAP Standarts SLO

























Legislation f of greenhouse vegetables according to EU regulations RO








 














Regional scientific workshop on IPM SL

























6. Information management (databases, websites, newsletters)

















Subregional (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia a








 















nd Montenegro, Slovenia, etc.) trainig workshop o.








 















n the construction and management of a website CRO








 










































Contributions to working group newsletter (3/year)




















































Regional training workshop on HORTIVAR & S&M

























Good morning horticulture CRO



 










 



































Good morning horticulture


























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