SEED BACTERIZATION IN RELATION TO THE RATES AND THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF FERTILIZER APPLICATION TO VEGETABLE SEED CROPS|
Lucian HĂLMĂGEAN, Claudia CRAIU
"Aurel Vlaicu" University, Arad, Faculty of Food Industry, Tourism and the Environment Protection, str. Elena Dragoi nr. 3, 2900 Arad, Romania (contact e-mail: email@example.com)
The nitrogen and phosphorus process of fertilization of beans as well as of other vegetables extended progressively lately, from three points of view: the elimination of the lack of nitrogen during the first stages of growing, the important effect of phosphorus on the symbiosis, the lack of it limitating the nitrogen assimilation, and the certainty of obtaining a better crop than using exclusively the bacterization.
Confronted by a considerable fluctuation of the pedological and climatic conditions on different meridians and a different symbiotic experimental culture ability, the results generated numerous disputes, creating a rich reference material concerning this issue.
Our research intended to establish the effects obtained during the symbiosis process, depending on the level of the dosage and the conditions of using the nitrogen fertilizer and to provide phosphorus in "Starter" system.
Material and methods
The increasing importance of the atmospheric nitrogen assimilation process depending on the dosage and the nitrogen and phosphorus periods of application, determined the development of researches concerning this issue, under the area of Arad agro-ecological circumstances, a representative area for the western part of the country.
The experiment took place from 1999 to 2001, using Valja garden beans kind, 55 plants/square meter.
We used Biotrofin for beans seeds to be treated, a product made of two alive constitutive: a nitro-capturing bacterium, which provides the nitrogen from atmosphere and a second one called Bacillus megaterum, which renders the phosphate soluble, making it accessible for the plants.
The three-factors experiment (fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and bacterial treatment) was organized every year and the results capitalization was made using the method of analyzing the variations for the multi-annual experiences in the same area.
Results and discussion
The general data concerning different aspects of the results fluctuations, of the whole series of experiences prove that the kinds compared are not uniform.
Having in view only the fertilization with phosphorus, we may see an insignificant differentiation of the production, resulting from the double phosphate application in "Starter" system (80 kg/ha), as compared to the fertilization with 300 kg/ha applied in autumn, but with an economic importance. The seeds bacterization with Biotrofin (10 l/ha) is used as a measure of increasing the beans production (0,202 t/ha). In the case of nitrogen fertilization, the doses applied provide the increasing of the crop especially if applied during the vegetative period (0,265 - 0,409 t/ha).
As compared to other factors, the garden beans cultivation using phosphorus in "Starter" system is supported by the results obtained both experimentally and economically during the years and the results are kept under observation.
Bacterization represents an efficient method confirmed by the maximum level of production obtained as compared to other factors effect (2,838 t/ha in comparison with 2,636 t/ha) a 7,7% medium increase. Relating to nitrogen fertilization into partnership with phosphorus, the results obtained made obvious the great effect of the use of urea in vegetation, during the blossoming period.
Examining the nitrogen influence depending on bacterization, in relation with phosphorus, we may find a connection between bacterization and the increase of the doses of nitrogen, but only until 60 kg/ha. Applied in vegetation, especially under the form of urea, the nitrogen increases the symbiosis appearance with visible effects on the crop.
Bacterization depending on phosphorus in relation with nitrogen is favorable especially from an economical point of view, in association with fertilization in "Starter" system.
The phosphorus applied in "Starter" system makes the crop four times bigger than in the case of the normal way of utilization (34,2 in comparison with 9,1 kg seeds/kg s.a.). The use of the phosphorus generally produces an increase of the crop with 21,6 kg seeds/kg P2O5. The increase of the crop due to bacterization is 20,2 kg seeds/kg Biotrofin.
In the case of the fertilization with nitrogen the increase of the crop is 7,4 kg. It increases to 11,2 kg if 30 kg of urea are applied during the blossoming period.
Fluctuation values established on the basis of deviation from the standard are generally reduced, they did not exceed 10 in the case of any variants of the experience.
The most favorable effect on the beans crop corresponds to the partnership between fertilization with phosphates in the "Starter" system, fertilization with nitrogen under the form of ammonium nitrate and urea in a mixture of 60 kg/ha applied during the plants blossoming period of the seeds resulted in the bacterization process.
Having in view the mixture of different factors in relation with the beans grown from seeds, the most favorable effect on the crop corresponds to the partnership between the seeds bacterization with Biotrofin (10 l/ha), the fertilization with superphosphate in "Starter" system (80 kg/ha) and the fertilization with nitrogen under the form of ammonium nitrate and urea (60 kg/ha) applied during the plants blossoming period.
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Popescu, A., (1990). The process of atmospherically nitrogen biological assimilation and its factors of conditioning. Agro-phyto-technical problems in theory and practice, Annals I.C.C.P.T Fundulea, vol.II, Bucharest