RESEARCH ON THE CONTROL OF MAJOR TOMATO CROP PATHOGENS AND PESTS|
Ion MITREA1, Rodi MITREA1, Nicu GIUGEA1, Camelina STEFAN2, Catalin STAN1, Ovidiu TUCA1
1Departament Plant Protection, Faculty of Horticulture, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza nr.13, 200585 Craiova, jud. Dolj, Romania. (contact e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
2Tudor Arghezi Highschool, Craiova
Obtaining constantly and profitable tomato yield becomes possible through a measures complex, among which the phytosanitary protection ones have a decisive role. All the more so while the Oltenia environment features are very favorable to the phytopathogen agents and pests emergence and attack evolution.
Material and methods
The research has been accomplished in a private farm from Teasc locality, in field conditions during 2001-2003.
There have been prepared observations on the dynamic of the main phytopathogen agents and pests' emergence and attack evolution related to the untreated control variant.
The treatments against diseases and pests have been applied in different phenological phases interrelated with the climatic conditions on a variety of pesticides.
At the end of the vegetation period, observations were noted on the phytopathogen agents and pests frequency and intensity attack, while at the end there has been calculated the degree attack and the chemical products' efficiency.
Results and discussion
In the Oltenia central area conditions, in the field tomato crop there have been registered the following phytopathogen agents and pests: Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Septoria lycopersici, Phytophtora infestans, Thrips tabaci, Tetranychus urticae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Macrosiphon euphorbiae, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Helicoverpa armigera.
During the research years on the untreated variants for the phytopathogen agents and pests with economical importance, from the summer-autumn tomato crop, the attack frequency recorded the following values: 32 % for Xanthomonas vesicatoria, 48 % for Alternaria solani, 28 % for Botrytis cinerea, 56 % for Septoria lycopersici, 13 % for Phytophtora infestans, 52 % for Leptinotarsa decemlineata adults and larvae, 98 % for Macrosiphon euphorbiae adults and larvae, 44 % for Trialeurodes vaporariorum adults, 7 % for Helicoverpa armigera larvae.
In order to control the diseases, there have been tested products that had to be active for as many as possible tomato phytopathogen agents and pests, in order to allow the simultaneous control option (Table 1).
Table 1. Efficiency in controlling the main field tomato crop's phytopathogen agents and pests
|Dithane M45 + Topsin M70 WP||0,2 0,1||90,7||91,6||93,4||91,4||92,6|
|Captan 50 WP||0,2||90,40||77,6||60,6||91,2||92,8|
|Untreated control variant||-||-||-||-||-||-|
Analyzing the recorded data regarding the field tomato crop protection against the phytopathogen agents, it can be concluded that, among the tested fungicides, the best simultaneous efficiency was shown by the following products: Bravo 500 SC 0,2 % dose and Dithane M45 0,2 % dose, as well as the mixture of Dithane M45 0,2 % dose and Topsin M70 WP 0,1 % dose (table 2).
Tabel 2. The efficiency of some products used in the summer-autumn tomato crop pests
euphorbiae - Thos
vaporariorum - Westw
|Dose (%)||72 hrs efficiency (%)||Dose (%)||72 hrs efficiency (%)||Dose %)||72 hrs efficiency (%)||Dose %)||72 hrs efficiency (%)|
|Mospilan 20 sp||0,06||98,4||0,06||92,4||0,025||100||0,025||89,6|
|Supersec 10 ec||0,02||97,7||0,02||89,2||0,10||100||0,05||84,5|
|Polythrin 20 ec||0,015||98,6||0,03||91,2||0,015||100||0,05||90,2|
|Fastac 10 ec||0,02||97,3||0,03||90,8||0,03||99,2||0,05||80,9|
|Victenom 50 wp||0,05||99,2||0,15||76,4||0,15||89,6||0,1||92,1|
|Decis 2,5 ce||0,05||90,8||0,05||91,1||0,05||96,8||0,05||98,3|
|Untreated control variant||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
Analyzing the efficiency of the products used for the tomato pests' control, it came out that:
- for Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the treatment applied at the attack indication can be done using the products Victenon 50 WP 0.05 % dose which had ensured a 99.2 % efficiency, Mospilan 20 SP 0.06% which reached a 98.4 % efficiency, Polytrin 20 EC 0.015% with a 98.6 % efficiency and the products Supersect 10 EC and Fastac 10 EC with 97.7 % efficiency, respectively 97.3 %;
- for Helicoverpa armigera larvae, the treatments should be applied before the larvae penetrate the fruits: Mospilan 20 SP 0.06%, Polytrin 20 EC 0.03%, Decis 2,5 CE 0.055 wich reach an efficiency of 91.1%, Fastac 10 EC and Ekalux S 0.10% and Supersect 10 EC 0.02% which reach an efficiency of 90.8% respectively 90.4%.
- for Macrosiphon euphorbiae, the control can be done using the following products: Mospilan 20 SP 0.025%, Supersect 10 EC 0.01% and Polytrin 20 EC 0.015% which had ensured a maximum efficiency relative to the control variant treated with Decis 2,5 CE 0.05% and also with Fastac 10 EC 0.03% and Ekalux S 0.20% with an efficiency ranged between 98.4 % and 99.2 %;
- in order to control the greenhouse whitefly relative to the treated control variant, the products that shown a good efficiency were: Decis 2,5 CE 0.05% with a 98.3 % efficiency but only for this pests' eggs and larvae, followed by Victenon 50 WP 0.1% and Polytrin 20 EC 0.03% with a 92.1 % respectively 90.2 % efficiency. The lowest efficiency level was recorded for Ekalux S 0.05%.
The main phytopathogen agents and pests that attack the field tomato crop are: Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Septoria lycopersici, Phytophtora infestans, Thrips tabaci, Tetranychus urticae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Macrosiphon euphorbiae, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Helicoverpa armigera.
Among the tested fungicides and fungicide mixtures used for the control of the flagged phytopathogen agents, simultaneous efficiency was noticed for the following products: Bravo 500 SC -0,2%, Dithane M45-0,2% and the mixture Dithane M45 0,2% + Topsin M70 WP 0,1%.
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