FERTILIZATION OF BEAN SEED CULTURES WITH MACRO- AND MICRO- ELEMENTS APPLIED ON THE SOIL AND FOLIARLY|
Lucian HALMAGEAN, Monica ZDREMTAN, Liliana CANTAR
"Aurel Vlaicu" University, Arad, Faculty of Food Industry, Tourism and The Environment Protection, str. Elena Dragoi, nr. 3, 2900, Arad, Romania (contact e-mail: email@example.com)
It is important to know the influence that the fertilizers with macro and micro- elements have upon the bean used for sowing, as a result of their complex relations. This knowledge helps us improve the efficient ways of nutrition for the plants belonging to the vegetable cultures used for sowing. The researches made worldwide and in our country emphasize the influence that the micro- elements have on the vegetable crop if applied together with fertilizers containing nitrate, phosphorus and potassium.
The foliar fertilization is a modern and efficient way both for increasing and improving the production and it offers possibilities for reducing the use of fertilizers and of energy. The advantages of the foliar fertilization, as compared to the soil fertilization, are the reduced doses of fertilizers and the improved coefficient of use for the nutritive elements. Further more, we can apply the foliar fertilizers associated with pesticides and it leads to a diminished energy input.
There has been a continuously growing development of the foliar fertilization method at the international level, but the efficiency of this method is determined by the right application depending on the plants needs and on the vegetation stages.
Material and methods
The experiments lasted between 1997-2001 within the agro-ecological area of Arad, an area representative for the Western part of our country. We used mono-factorial experiments, set in randomized blocks with four repetitions, each repetition lot having an area of 15 m2.
The sowing period was between the 25th-29th April, each year, we used 55 plants/ m2 from the Valja kind. The rest of the land was sowed using the common technology recommended for the seed tree bean cultures, taking into account the variants proposed.
For the variants with macro and micro- elements fertilizers applied on the soil, the fertilization was done in autumn using phosphorus and, in certain phases, nitrate when we sowed the culture and during the vegetation stages, at a height of 15 cm and when the first floral buds appeared. The solution concentration was of 7% raw substance. The macro and micro- elements doses reduced for 5-10 time as compared to those applied on the soil.
The data evaluation was made according to the method of variance analyses for the mono-factorial experiments set in randomized blocks for each year and for several years in the case of a series of experiments made on garden bean plants from the same locality.
During the vegetation period we made some observations and determinations in order to set the morphological indexes of the plants from the variants used.
Results and discussion
Analyzing the meteorological data from the studied period, we consider them normal and thus representative. Comparing the interaction of the variants x years (s2AV) we have significant results, fact which proves that even repeating the experiment in the future, the variants analyzed differ from the production point of view.
The data obtained regarding the influence of the application either on the soil or foliar of the fertilizers containing macro and micro- elements prove the superiority of the application of basic fertilizers together with the following micro- elements: sulfate, molybdenum, cobalt, boron and manganese (2.697-2.960 t/ha).
Comparing the results obtained with the witness- a classical procedure during every year of the study- and with the years average, the production results are superior, very significant the differences ranking between 0.061-0.235 t/ha. As compared to the average of the variants used as witness, we obtained distinct and very significant results only for the variants where we had applied on the soil and foliar the basic fertilizers and the majority of the micro- elements studied (0.102-0.190 t/ha).
We can notice that the productions obtained after the foliar administration of the fertilizers with macro and micro- elements are at the same level as those applied on the soil, some of these values are even higher even if the quantity of the fertilizers is 5-10 time smaller. The most economic results recommend the use of the following doses: 7 kg N, 10 kg P2O5, 8 kg K2O, 0.5 kg S, 0.006 kg Mo, 0.003 kg CO, 0.6 kg B and 0.3 kg Mn per hectare. The average production for the years studied was 2.981 t/ha and there was a difference of 0.233 t/ha as compared to the witness.
The determinations made during the vegetation period concerning the average of the morphological indexes of the plants show the importance of the nitrate (the total dose- 7 kg/ha) administrated foliar in two stages as compared to the one administrated on the soil. The values of these indexes are high even for the variants where we have administrated micro- elements which led to the formation of a greater number of leaves and, as a consequence, the more intense growth of the pods (23.2-26.8) and of the beans in the pods.
The studies made so far prove that for the use of the macro- elements NPK, applied on the soil for the garden bean used for sowing, there was a maximum efficiency at the production level and, especially, from the economical point of view this efficiency can be reached by foliar application of N7, P2O5, IO and K2O8 kg dissolved in the solution with a quantity of 5-0.5 kg of proportionate micro- elements in addition for 1 hectare: Mo- 0.006 kg, CO- 0.003 kg, B- 0.6 kg, Mn- 0.3 kg.
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